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Amphibian Biodiversity Research

IPBio wishes to understand the distribution of amphibians, understand their reproductive habits, track species composition and well-being as well as potential find new species. Data collection is conducted using two methodologies namely nocturnal active search and pitfalls. IPBio selected 6 different locations which varied in factors such as altitude, anthropogenic impact and stage of forest regeneration and set up 5 pitfalls in each location.


IPBio conducts regular inventories of frog and toad species and has found a total of 38 species of frogs on the Betary Reserve. Recently IPBio constructed a new pitfall site situated at a much higher and unexplored altitude. IPBio believes that this factor alone will lead to the discovery of different species on the reserve. Additionally, IPBio hopes to find new species which are yet to be described scientifically.



IPBio studies the biology, reproductive habits and ethology of native frogs. Understanding species reproduction is essential for conservation efforts.

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Evaluation of the Infection of Boana faber by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

BD is a fungus that has been decimating amphibian populations in all continents that amphibians inhabit. Our project seeks to understand the pattern of occurrence, the number of infected tadpoles, across the seasons as well as understand the survival rate of infected tadpoles that manage to complete the process of metamorphosis hence reaching adulthood which is of utmost importance for elaboration of actions for the conservation of amphibian populations.

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Flavo food study

Leptodactylus flavopictus is a rare species of amphibian and therefore little is known of its biology and conservation status. IPBio evaluates their development pre and post metamorphosis ex situ and their food preference in capitivity which is critical information if any conservation action is needed.

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Anuros de Áreas Conservadas e urbanizadas do Município de Iporanga, estado de São Paulo, Brasil – 2010.


Researcher: Isaias Santos. Orientador: Dr Luis Felipe Toledo. UNICAMP

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Interferência da Perda Parcial da Cauda no Desenvolvimento de Girinos de Dendropsophus elegans – 2010.

Researcher: Isaias Santos. Advisor: Dr Luis Felipe Toledo. UNICAMP

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Warming drives cryptic declines of amphibians in eastern Brazil.

During nine years (2010 – 2019), researchers from IPBio – Betary Reserve, carried out a standardized monitoring study of anuran amphibians from the Atlantic Forest, the data collected during this period were correlated with climatic data to understand, if this factor really contributed to the population decline of anuran amphibians. 

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Seasonal prevalence of the amphibian chytrid in a tropical pond-dwelling tadpole species
(Seasonal prevalence of the chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in a tadpole species that lives in tropical ponds).

Infection by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a major threat to amphibians and has caused catastrophic declines in amphibian populations worldwide. Some studies have detected a seasonal pattern of infection associated with the local climate. Over two years, tadpoles of the species Boana faber were collected and analyzed to understand the prevalence of Bd infection in Reserva Betary, Iporanga – SP – Brazil.

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Leptodactylus flavopictus: temporal calling activity and tadpole redescription
(Leptodactylus flavopictus: Vocalization activity and redescription of the tadpole).

The anurans' vocalization activity is linked to adequate environmental conditions, especially humidity, temperature and precipitation. Consequently, the breeding season is often concomitant with the rainy season for most anuran species. In this study we evaluated the vocalization activity 
of L. flavopictus through passive bioacoustic monitoring for one year. We also rewrite the internal morphology of the tadpole mouth.


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